Water-lifting System by Camillo Agrippa

The admiration Agrippa’s water-lifting creation received from Andrea Bacci in 1588 was temporary. pd-44__91433.jpg It may be that the Acqua Felice, the second of Rome’s earliest modern channels made the system outdated when it was linked to the Villa Medici in 1592. In reality it was perhaps simply disused when Ferdinando went to Florence in 1588 following the expiry of his brother, Francesco di Medici, leading Ferdinando to give up his position as a cardinal in order to lock in his place as the upcoming Grand Duke of Tuscany. It could violate the law of gravity to raise water to Renaissance landscapes, providing them in a way other late 16th century designs like scenographic water displays, music fountains and giochi d’acqua or water caprices, were not.

Rome’s Ingenious Water Transport Systems

With the construction of the first raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, folks who lived on the city’s foothills no longer had to be dependent strictly on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the lone technological innovations obtainable at the time to supply water to areas of high elevation. To supply water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they utilized the brand-new tactic of redirecting the current from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground network. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Although they were primarily developed to make it possible to support the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi started out using the manholes to gather water from the channel, starting when he bought the property in 1543.

The cistern he had built to collect rainwater wasn’t satisfactory to meet his water requirements. That is when he decided to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran directly below his residence.

Chatsworth Gardens and its "Revelation" Water Feature

The renowned UK sculptor Angela Conner designed the Chatsworth ornamental outdoor water feature called “Revelation.” In 2004/5 she was commissioned by the now deceased 11th Duke of Devonshire to create a limited edition bust of Queen Elizabeth, in brass and steel, for the Queen’s 80th birthday bash. One of Chatsworth’s oldest ponds, Jack Pond, had “Revelation” installed in it in 1999. The four big steel petals open and close with the circulation of water, alternatively concealing and showing a golden globe at the sculpture’s heart. The sculpture’s proportions are five meters high by five meters wide and incorporates a steel globe coated with gold dust. This newest fountain is an intriguing and innovative addition to the Gardens of Chatsworth, unique in that the motion of the flower petals is completely driven by water.

Chatsworth and its Attention-Grabbing Cascading Fountain

At the back of Chatsworth House, the Cascade garden water fountain creates a spectacular centerpiece to the landscape. Twenty-four irregularly spaced stone steps in a series run along 200 yards in the direction of the house and down the hillside. Completely gravity fed, the Cascade too is dependent on a 17th century French design. In 1696, this particular water fountain was created for the first Duke of Devonshire and has stayed unchanged ever since that time.

The Cascade House rests at the very top of the fountain where water spills downward. Ornamented on the outside of the house with deep-sea creatures in bas-relief, the dwelling is a smaller building. Water pressure to the Cascade can easily be boosted on special moments, causing the Cascade House to become an essential element of the Cascade spectacle, as water passes through conduits on its rooftop and from the jaws of its carved underwater creatures, prior to proceeding along the Cascade. The sound of the water cascading differs as it falls down the Cascades mainly because of the minor variance in the size of every single step thereby providing a fantastic and restful accompaniment to a trek through the gardens. This cascade was chosen in a survey, carried out by Country Life in 2004, as the UK'sbest water feature.

California's Outdoor Garden Fountain Study and Results

The first implementation of a soda tax in the US came in February 2014, when it was approved by the city of Berkley, California. The taxation is supposed to lower sugary drink intake and improve the consumption of healthier beverages, such as water from fountains. First, the city conducted research to examine whether citizens had proper access to working drinking water fountains. The research utilized a GPS app to gather data on current water fountains in the city. Analysts then used US Census data to find out even more about the economic and racial issues that impacted the city. Comparisons were made amongst the location and demographic data, uncovering whether class differences affected access to clean, working water fountains.

They were in a position to determine the demographics of regions surrounding existing fountains, as well as the cleanliness and upkeep of fountains across assorted neighborhoods. The fact that the fountains were operating was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, given that quite a few were in need of cleaning and repair.


The First Garden Water Features recorded in Human History.
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