The Results of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Landscaping

Anglo-Saxons experienced extraordinary changes to their day-to-day lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. su2025_2__17580.jpg The Normans were much better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. But nevertheless home life, household architecture, and decoration were out of the question until the Normans taken over the general populace. Monasteries and castles served separate purposes, so while monasteries were large stone structures built in only the most productive, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the occupants focused on understanding offensive and defensive strategies. Relaxing activities such as gardening were out of place in these destitute citadels. Berkeley Castle, perhaps the most pristine model of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture, still exists in the present day. It is said that the keep was developed during William the Conqueror's time. A monumental terrace serves as a deterrent to invaders who would try to mine the walls of the building. On one of these terraces lies a stylish bowling green: it's covered in grass and flanked by an old yew hedge that is formed into the shape of rough ramparts.

The Stupendous Santa Maria in Cosmedin Water Fountain in Rome

Archaeologists and restorers on the lookout for pagan and Christian antiquities in Rome have come across an abundance of them in the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin.

Found in the portico of the nearby basilica one can see the famous marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth). Built in 1719, the Santa Maria in Cosmedin water fountain was not well known and located far from sight making it difficult to visit. It was said that there was nothing worth seeing in this area, as it was bleak and desolate making it an unfriendly place to visit. In order to refurbish the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Pope Clement XI commissioned an Italian architect by the name of Carlo Bizzaccheri to create a fountain for the area. Work on the church's foundation started on on August 11, 1717. The first stone to be placed in the foundation was consecrated and medals bearing the images of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water, were also tossed in.

Gardens of Chatworth and its "Revelation" Water Feature

“Revelation,” the latest inclusion to the ornamental garden fountains of Chatsworth, was designed by renowned British sculptor Angela Conner. In commemoration of the Queen’s 80th birthday celebration, she was mandated by the late 11th Duke of Devonshire to create a limited edition bust of Queen Elizabeth designed of brass and steel in 2004. In 1999 Revelation was mounted in Jack Pond, one of Chatsworth’s oldest ponds. Taking the shape of four big petals that open and close with the flow of water, the steel fountain alternatively hides and reveals a golden globe at the center of the sculpture. Standing five meters high and five meters wide, the globe was crafted from steel and then coated with gold dust. This most recent fountain is an intriguing addition to the Chatsworth Gardens because the petals’ motion is completely run by water.

Agrippa's Eye-popping, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting Device

The praise Agrippa’s water-lifting invention earned from Andrea Bacci in 1588 was temporal. Merely years later, in 1592, the earliest modern Roman conduit, the Acqua Felice, was linked to the Medici’s villa, possibly making the unit outdated. In truth it was probably merely disused when Ferdinando went back to Florence in 1588 following the death of his brother, Francesco di Medici, leading Ferdinando to give up his cardinalship in order to safeguard his place as the upcoming Grand Duke of Tuscany. It might violate gravity to lift water to Renaissance gardens, supplying them in a way other late sixteenth century concepts like scenographic water presentations, melodious fountains and giochi d’acqua or water caprices, were not.

Fountains Where Your Kitty Can Play

Does your cat like to leap onto the counter when he hears the faucet? Does he put his paws into the toilet or feel the water in his bowl before sticking his face in it? Odd as these behaviors sound, they really show a cat’s natural instinct to avoid still standing water. In fact, they do not have a strong natural instinct to hydrate.

Cats in the wild actually get the water they need from meats containing water. Consequently, felines never developed the instinct to drink water. That said, domestic cats do in fact need additional water, so it is up to you to provide it. Make water easily accessible to your cat by installing a cat fountain.

If you put one in, you can rest easy knowing your pet has convenient access to water. The variety of different models will let you to pick a fountain best suited to your cat. Some fountains are basically a bowl which refills automatically while others provide fresher water due to their continuous flow.


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